Call for Papers — Extended deadline: Migrants and Development in Western Africa: Migration Experiences, Migratory Capital and Development (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, June 19-21, 2012)

2 January 2012

Migrants and Development in Western Africa: Migration Experiences, Migratory Capital and Development
Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), June 19-21, 2012

New Deadline for Submission of Proposals : January 15, 2012

University of Ouagadougou
Laboratory Societies, Mobility, and Environment

Training and Research Unit of Social Sciences
Department of Sociology

CALL FOR PAPERS

1 ) Context

Burkina Faso is a country of emigration. Despite the fact of being prior to the colonial period, this emigration, has been largely influenced by colonization along with its socio- economic upheavals. In fact, first created as an autonomous country in 1919, it was later divided up in 1932 and shared between the colonies of Niger, French Sudan (current Mali) and Ivory Coast (Sawadogo, 1974).1 This dislocation was motivated by the wish of the French colonizers to put a large population of Upper Volta2 at the disposal of the rich agro-industrial development potential of the Ivory Coast colony and for the huge development construction works of the Niger Office. In 1947, it was reconstituted in its current borders.

1 According to this source, the respective parts were as follows: 70 000 km2 and 268, 000 inhabitants, 52 400 km2 and 712, 000 inhabitants, 153, 500 km2 and 2, 019, 000 inhabitants. Here is an extract of Governor Bourgine’s presentation during the session of AOF government council ( Western African French colonies) in November 1932 : “the 5th of September decree abolishes the colony of Upper-Volta and links the circles of Tenkodogo, Ouagadougou, Kaya, Koudougou, Gaoua, Batié, Bobo Dioulasso and one part of Dédougou located on the right side of Black Volta, to the colony of Ivory Coast. These 8
circumscriptions represent an area of 153 650 km2 and have 2 011 900 inhabitants. (Source: CAOM, FM, Affaires politiques, carton 148).

2 Previous name of Burkina Faso

For various reasons, the emigration of Burkinabè people to foreign countries remained after the access to formal independence in 1960. It was strengthened in the 1970s by a series of draughts in The Sahel and started to decline by the end of the 1980s due to massive returns related to political problems experienced by Ivorian and Burkinabe peoples (Ouédraogo, 1993) and to the settlement of migrants from diverse origins including Ivory Coast. (Zongo, 2011; EMU-BF, 1996).1993) and to the settlement of migrants from diverse origins including Ivory Coast. (Zongo, 2011; EMU-BF, 1996).1993) and to the settlement of migrants from diverse origins including Ivory Coast. (Zongo, 2011; EMU-BF, 1996).

3 In 1999 and2002; people who lived outside the country between 1996 and 2006: 722 455, among which 610 805 in Ivory Coast and 78 250 in other countries (RGPH 2006: 17, report 8 on migrations).

4 In 2007-2008 , in Mali, only in the circles of Diéma, Yélimané and Kayes in the region of Kayes, the international migration enabled to build of collective infrastructures like schools, sanitation infrastructure and rural waterworks within the framework of decentralized development and brought up approx. 376 362 000 FCFA mainly meant for food needs.

In the same way, the region of Sikasso, that has a tradition of migration and maintains proximity migration with border countries (Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso), has experienced new migration flows towards Spain. Money transfers helped to better equip households with farming equipments, to build health centers, bridges, rural paths and to create new activities (trade, soldering workshops). But it is mainly the sudden and massive returns in 1999 and2002 and the following years that raised new and urgent issues on Burkinabe emigration (Sawadogo, 1999, 2001), putting the issue back into the sub-regional and international context. Indeed, since the beginning of the second millennium, the importance of international migrations and their implications at economic, demographic and political levels have been a burning issue. Thus, in 2010, 214 million migrant people were recorded worldwide, which is 3.1% of the world population (World Bank 2011). Africa contributes to this phenomenon: in 2000, over 175 million of migrants have been counted in the world, i.e. 3.1% of the world population (World Bank, 2011). Africa is largely contributing to this phenomenon: in 2000,looking at 175 million of migrants, 16.2 millions among them were from Africa. The same year, Africa experienced 3.6 million of refugees and 9 million of displaced people. Sub-Saharan Africa contributes to these large world movements in general but distinguishes itself by the predominance of the regional characteristic of its people’s migrations. As a matter of fact, 86% of West African migrants (about 7.5 million people) settle in another country of West Africa, versus approximatively 0.77 million in Europe and 0.39 million in North America (CEDEAO- CSAO/ OCDE, 2006:18). The importance of regional migrations resulted into some political measures and the adoption of legal provisions in order to make profit out of it and minimize the risks. For example, this is the case for the common migration approach adopted by ECOWAS member States in January 2009. (Trémolières, 2009). The growing interest for the international migrations issue is also expressed through the increasing attention given to migrants’ monetary transfers. Despite the fact that the importance of economic flows represents a potential source of development funding especially in the countries4 of origin, there are still a lot of discussions about means and modalities of transfer, how these amounts of money are used and how to find solutions to improve their effective contribution to development. An analysis of the migrants’ entry and living conditions in their host countries including the difficulties they encounter for their circulation and stay in Western and African countries, will contribute to a better understanding of these populations and their migration path. It will help understand how their migration capital (economic, technical, cultural and social) is constituted and how it evolves. This knowledge will help to improve the intercontinental dialogue on international migrations management. The orientations of this Symposium works are organised with respect to this set of considerations.

1- Orientation and organisation

This Symposium aims at documenting the multiple implications of migration in Africa and more specifically in western Africa from the following lines:

a) Migration flows: countries of origin, host countries, situation of generations born during the period of migration, return migration:

One can note a certain abundant literature on these issues, but the new trends of mobility show the need for new investigations. On the one hand, the expected proposals will aim at spreading the research results and on the other hand, making new proposals to fill up the gaps of research ;at last, suggesting actions for the future (relevance, conditions of efficiency, recommended actors, strategies, beneficiaries, assessment of the socio-economic impact and analysis of incidence on social relationship and social structures, and so on).

Papers on this theme will be on:

- reporting on fieldworks or processing of collected data, the migrants’ leaving conditions from their regions or countries oforigin, their conditions of arrival in host areas, the process of migratory capital accumulation and its successive development, conditions of return, the state of migratory capital during these returns (free or forced), the hosting conditions, the social and economic integration of these migrants during their return back home (normal or forced).

- making proposals for research prospects which would contribute to a better understanding of the main issues of these new migration data (themes, levels of spatial coverage, means of achievement, financial partners, assistance and collaborators, recommended schedule, and soon).

b) Migrations and capital accumulation, social and economic development.

Migratory money savings have been drawing attention since the last decade. The objective here is to retrace their importance on a long term perspective, to identify current transfer means, existing various assessments and to bring back these components into the framework of migratory capital context. Presentations will focus on money savings by migrant people in order to retrace, on the one hand, the conditions of their accumulation, their size, and on the other hand, the places and sectors of their investments in the immigration country and at last, the means and social conditions of their transfer and use in countries of origin (domains of activity, stakeholders, places, investment sectors, inter-community relationships, local development, etc). The expected proposals will also account for cultural or social standards that govern these transfers as well as the economic and statutory interests at stake. Thus, presentations will deal with the domains of activity and incomes of migrant people and children born during migration, the evolution of monetary transfers linked to migration, the cost and effectiveness of the savings transfer means, the gender-based character of these savings and their transfer, the use of these savings, their social and economic effects, etc..

c) Migration and construction of community and identity spaces

In most host countries, besides the difficulties linked to the entry and the stay in strongly- regulated areas, coexistence problems with national populations arose from policies on national preferences or restricted employment. When considering the case of three countries which have the highest flows of migrants in western Africa (1975: 1,421,900 in Ivory Coast, 562,100 in Ghana, 355,000 in Senegal, which is respectively 21%, 6.6%, 7.1% of each country total population: World Bank, CIRCA, 1975), the gap between the size of “foreigners” illustrates this fact in conjunction with the economic basis, political and historical contexts that are so commonly brought up. In other words, these situations result from the perception of the foreigner as regards to the criteria for nationality based on the right to citizenship by virtue of birth or blood depending on the options. What are the factors that have contributed to shape the coexistence rules between natives and foreigners at the level of State, political parties and economic actors in these countries? What development did the codification and practices undergo?

Papers on this line will deal with the context of migrants’ arrival in host countries (migration law), the modalities of migrants’ classification by governments, the horizontal and vertical segregation of employment on a national basis or of work permit (for example, the ban on doing this or that job) and naturalisation policies (the right to citizenship by virtue of birth or blood…) which have consequently built in each country specific foreign populations. They will also report on how identities are (re)built in each context, how to identify the developments that can be observed and the consequences of this type of policy on identity building (and on cultural capital).

d) Migrations from Africa to Western countries

Another current reality of international migrations is the issue of the Euro-African dialogue based on three dominant dimensions which are the search for concerted management agreements of migration flows, the mobility of competences versus brain drain from the South to the benefit of Western countries, and illegal migration. The Schengen agreements signed by the European Union member States in 1995 introduced the principle of free movement of people inside the European Community for the European Union citizens. On the other hand, it introduced for people coming from other countries a series of increasing dissuasive measures preventing them from getting access to the European Community Area. However, aware of the demographic deficiency reality which could jeopardize at long term the human resources available needed to maintain their development level and their competitiveness, the same countries have initiated a stratagem called “chosen migration” which is in fact aimed at attracting competent people from the South.

Papers expected following this main line must:

- make a current and critical briefing on the practice of each of the three current dimensions of international migration;
- As regard the mobility of competences between Africa and Western countries, give the state-of-the-art of skilled people migration, the most concerned professional profiles, the concerned people’s behaviour regarding development needs of their country or region of origin, the possibilities of transnational transfers of competences, the initiatives undertaken by migrants themselves. The papers must also include some major projects initiated by organisations and structures working in the field of development (such as MIDA), including the difficulties met during their implementation.
- unveil the real advantages that each contracting party gets but also problems which came up and perspectives to be considered by authorities and involved intermediary structures, as well as concerned stakeholders considering agreements that have already been signed:
- present freely the contribution (developpement , presentation and analysis) of the migration known as illegal:
- focus on a specific aspect : that is to account for the institutional, legislative, and statutory context of the immigrant’s entry (especially in western countries), daily life experiences, problems linked to cohabitation and interculturality, migration projects (namely the existence of a planned return and the modes of its implementation, event progressive) etc.

e) National migration policies in countries of origin and management of social crises.

In the specific case of some Sahelian countries, such as Burkina Faso (former Upper Volta), Mali, Niger, the dynamics of emigration – still at work fifty years after the Independences – seem to indicate that beyond the direct constraint used at the time by the colonizer, the populations and the different political regime leaders (excepted some) were convinced that they could not properly live on the resources of their country. If the conventions and other regional agreements are evidence of the will to best organise a dependence which has in fact got developed, the lack of an explicit migration policy in almost all countries in the region, the massive and repeated expulsions which happened in Ivory Coast in 1999, in 2002 and the following years (Ivoirité – “Ivority”) testify that difficulties still continue. Contributions are expected to describe the existing contexts of migration policies (implicit and explicit)in departure and host countries, to present the consequences of those practices on populations and their perception of migration,to describe the social crises which occurred in this field, the modalities of their management by government and its development partners, as well as the populations, and their incidence on the development of the legal and statutory referents related to migration.

f) Migrations and environment

The relations between migrations and environment have almost always been analysed from the point of view of the impact of migratory processes on the ecological surroundings of host areas. The impacts of migrations on the shaping of natural host surroundings and the social resetting which were induced or amplified by those dynamics have been analysed. However, the part of the cultural renewal methods and the new connections with environment which are in favour of a sustainable environment in the countries of origin on the one hand, and to a more sustainable preservation of ecosystems in host areas on the other hand, failed to catch researchers’ attention sufficiently. Besides, if those connections between the human being and his/her environment led to research in all disciplines in the framework of “desertification” and “ecological erosion” in the Sahelian regions, powerful agricultural pioneer fronts constituted by migrants and wood industrialists have “denatured” original forest areas in coastal regions and forest countries such as Ivory Coast, threatening the world ecological balance. New issues related to the connections between the human being and his/her environment, in the setting of migration are thus progressively raised and are worth of further commitment.

Papers expected on this theme will deal with:

-The identification of agro-sylvo-pastoral practices in the countries of origin as well as the countries of destination, of those constituting a danger to environment protection or ecosystems conservation, renewal, and improvement modalities.
- The analysis of interactions between people entrusted with customary laws, the migrants’ practices, and governmental services in the occupation and the types of exploitation of forests and “listed” zones:
- The dialectical analysis of the relationship between environment policies of international and national institutions on the one hand and the population practices one the other hand;
- Some changes that can be observed at the level of the different stakeholders, in connection with environment and which were induced by the effects of global warming.

3- The Scientific Committee

Bolzman Claudio: Haute école de travail social- HETS, HES-SO, CEDIC, Geneva, Switzerland
Cissé Pierre: Institut Supérieur de Formation et de Recherche Appliquée (ISFRA), University of Bamako, Mali
Ibo Gehi Jonas: University of Abobo-Adjamé, Training and Research Unit of Environment Science and Management, Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Koné Mariétou: Ethno-Sociology Institute, University of Cocody, Abidjan, Ivory Coast
Lututala Bernard Mumpasi: CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal
Mandé Issiaka: Canada, Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de science politique
Tabin Jean-Pierre: Haute Ecole de Travail Social et de la Santé- EESP, Laboratoire Recherche Santé Sociale (LaReSS), Lausanne, Switzerland
Zongo Mahamadou: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of Sociology

4- Steering Committee

Batenga Willy Moussa; University of Ouagadougou, Head of the Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences
Boly Dramane: University of Ougadougou, ISSP
Bonkoungou Zakaliyat: Ministry of Economy and finance, SP/ CONAPO
Dakuyo Louis Marie: Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity
Gomgnibou Moustapha: CNRST, History
Hien Sansan Victor: Ministry of Employment and Social Security, DES/INFTS.
Kabore Yimian Albert: UNDP
Kini Olivier: UNDP
Lougué Siaka: Ministry of Economy and Finance, INSD
Maîga Alkassoum: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of Sociology
Ouattara Siaka: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of Sociology
Rouamba/Ouédraogo Valérie: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of Sociology
Sangli Gabriel: University of Ouagadougou, ISSP
Sissao Claude: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of History and Archeology
Ukélo-Mbolo Merga Marie-Christine: HEF-TS, Fribourg, Switzerland
Zongo Mahamadou: University of Ouagadougou, Training and Research Unit of Human Sciences, Department of Sociology

5- Local Coordination Committee

Paper proposals are to be sent to the following addresses :

- Pr. Ram Christophe Sawadogo: rcsawadogo@yahoo.fr
- Pr. Mahamadou Zongo: zongomahamadou@yahoo.fr
- Pr. Alkassoum Maîga : kasmaig@yahoo.fr

6- Major dates

. September 14-16th, 2011 : publication of the call for papers

. December 15th, 2011: deadline for paper proposals

. November 14th, 2011: reminder

. December 15th, 2011 to January 14th, 2012: selection of proposals by the scientific committee

. January 15 -16th , 2012: notification of selections to the authors

. March 15th, 2012: return of papers

. March 16th, 2012: sending of papers to commentators

. April 15th, 2012: return of the commentators’ comments

. June 19t -21st, 2012: International Symposium (entertainment tourist trip :June 22nd 2012, departure : June 23rd, 2012).

7. Tuition fees

They are as follows:

- When paid by an institution for researchers, teacher-researchers and students: FCFA 100,000

- When directly paid by the participants: FCFA 65,000 for researchers and teacher-researchers and FCFA 25,000 for the students.

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